Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih / International Crimes and History
The Balkans has been at the intersection of various migration routes throughout history; different peoples have left their footmarks on the Balkan soil throughout their journeys. These peoples uprooted, swallowed, or mixed with other groups, or they were assimilated by
them in a process that eventually led to the emergence of new ethnonational and ethno-religious identities over time. As a result of these intense, centuries long, continuous, contingent, and casual interactions, the Balkans became one of the most ethnically diverse geographies in the world.
Population movements and interactions do not occur in a vacuum. They both affect and are affected by the socio-political context. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, population movements and interactions took place within the context of the imperial rules, particularly the rule of the Ottoman Empire. By the beginning of the 19th century, empires began
to collapse, giving way to nation-states as new and novel political formations. Within a hundred years or so, the social, economic, and political landscape of the Balkans transformed dramatically. During this period, conflicts and clashes led to voluntary or forced migrations in
various forms, which significantly transformed the ethno-demographic structure of the peninsula. During World War II and the following Cold War era, population movements were also witnessed albeit in smaller scales. The end of the Cold War was followed by merciless ethnic clashes that also resulted in changes in the ethno-demographic structure of the peninsula as a consequence of massacres, and voluntary or forced migrations. Today, the Balkans is a transit route of a huge migration wave from the Middle East (particularly from Syria), which renders it a stage for tragic scenes.
The 17th issue of International Crimes and History focuses on this geography, which is still dominated by complex political and social dynamics.
The article titled Panslavizmin Çarlık Rusyası’nın ve Sovyetler Birliği’nin Balkan Politikaları Üzerindeki Etkisi (The Influence of Panslavism in Tsarist Russia’s and Soviet Union’s Balkan Policies) written by Ali Asker and Merve Özel Özcan analyzes Panslavism which is one of the most important currents in the Russian history of thought. This study, which addresses the historical development, transformation, impact and results of Panslavism, provides the readers with a historical analysis about the place and function of Panslavism in the Russian foreign policy on the Balkans and contemporary Russian nationalism.
Cengiz Haksöz’s article titled The Making of the Rhodopean Borders and Constructıon of the Pomak Identities in the Balkans analyzes the identity formation of the Pomaks, a Slavic-speaking Muslim community, within its relationality with Bulgarian, Greek and Turkish nation building processes. Within this framework, Haksöz elaborates on the formation of borders in the Rhodopes and how formation of borders affected the making of the identities of Pomaks in Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey.
During the dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1990’s, a tragic period of conflicts and massacres with great humanitarian tragedies took place. The fact that communities that once lived together or side by side later engaged in destructive and bloody conflicts is an historical process that should be analyzed and taken lessons from. İbrahim Fevzi Güven, in his
article titled Yugoslavya’nın Dağılması Bağlamında Josip Broz Tito ve Slobodan Miloseviç’in Söylem ve Politikalarının İncelenmesi (Examination of the Discourses and the Politics of Josip Broz Tito and Slobodan Milosevic in the Context of the Dissolution of Yugoslavia), comparing the attitude and policies of two Yugoslavian leaders Tito and
Milosevic, examines the dissolution of Yugoslavia and analyzes how the different ideologies and policies of the two leaders influenced the fate of Yugoslavia.
Russia’s annexation of Crimea consequenced by the emergence of one of the most significant international law and foreign policy issues after NATO’s Kosovo intervention. Russia tries to legitimize its policy of invasion by citing NATO’s intervention in Kosovo. Abdullah Tunç and Hamdi Fırat Büyük, in their study titled Kosova ve Kırım Vakalarının Uluslararası Hukuk Perspektifinden Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analizi (A Comparative Analysis of Kosovo and Crimea Cases from an International Law Perspective), address the Kosovo intervention and the
annexation of Crimea with reference to international law, and their historical, demographical and political aspects, and analyze similarities and differences of the two events. Ultimately, Tunç and Büyük reveal the basic differences between two cases, and demonstrate that the Kosovo case can not be a precedent for the annexation of Crimea.
In addition to this studies that focus on the Balkans, the present issue of International Crimes and History also includes Teoman Ertuğrul Tulun’s study titled The Fabricated Pontus Narrative and Hate Speech, which addresses the “Pontian Genocide” narrative that has been voiced since the end of the 1980s. This study, which is based on a comparative analysis of Greek and Turkish sources, points to hate speech that is integral to the “Pontian Genocide” narrative.
Lastly, Şükrü Elekdağ’s report titled 81. Yılında Montrö Sözleşmesi’nin Karşılaştığı Güvenlik Sorunları ve Sözleşmenin Feshi ve Tadili İçin Girişimler Vukuunda Karşılaşılacak enaryoların Analizi (Security Issues Faced by the Montreux Convention and the Analysis of Possible Scenarios in The Event of Attempts for the Annulment and Amendment of the Convention) analyzes current security issues faced by the Montreux Convention and possibilities that Turkey may encounter in the event of the cancelation or amendment of the Montreux Convention in recent times of striking geopolitical developments in the Black Sea
ARAŞTIRMA MAKALELERİ/RESEARCH ARTICLES
Asker, Ali, ve Merve Suna Özel Özcan. “Panslavizmin Carlık Rusyası’nın ve Sovyetler Birliği’nin Balkan Politikaları Üzerindeki Etkisi/ The Influence of Panslavism in Tsarist Russia’s and Soviet Union’s Balkan Policies”. Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih/International Crimes and History 17 (2016): 17-46.
Haksöz, Cengiz. ‘The Making of the Rhodopean Borders and Construction of the Pomak Identities in the Balkans /Rodoplar Sınırının Oluşumu ve Balkanlar’da Pomak Kimliğinin İnşası’. Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih/International Crimes and History 17 (2016): 47–100.
Güven, İbrahim Fevzi. “Yugoslavya’nın Dağılması Bağlamında Josip Broz Tito ve Slobodan Milosevic’in Soylem ve Politikalarının İncelenmesi / Examination of the Discourses and the Politics of Josip Broz Tito and Slobodan Milosevic in the Context of the Dissolution of Yugoslavia”. Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih/International Crimes and History 17 (2016): 101-28.
Tunç, Abdullah, ve Hamdi Fırat Büyük. “Kosova ve Kırım Vakalarının Uluslararası Hukuk Perspektifinden Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analizi / A Comparative Analysis of Kosovo and Crimea Cases from an International Law Perspective”. Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih/International Crimes and History 17 (2016): 129-64.
Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul. “The Fabricated Pontus Narrative and Hate Speech / Üretilmiş Pontus Anlatısı ve Nefret Söylemi.” Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih/International Crimes and History 17 (2016): 165–88.
Elekdağ, Mustafa Şükrü. “81. Yılında Montro Sozleşmesi’nin Karşılaştığı Guvenlik Sorunları ve Sozleşmenin Feshi ve Tadili İcin Girişimler Vukuunda Karşılaşılacak Senaryoların Analizi /Security Issues Faced by the Montreux Convention and the Analysis of Possible Scenarios in the Event of Attempts for the Annulment and Amendment of the Convention”. Uluslararası Suçlar ve Tarih/International Crimes and History 17 (2016): 189-206.
Ali Asker is the Head of Karabük University International RelationsDepartment. Asker graduated from Azerbaijan Technical Universityin 1993 and Baku State University Faculty of Law in 1997. He gained hismaster’s degree in Public Law at Marmara University in 2000. Hecompleted his doctoral studies in the same field at Ankara University in2007. Asker is an Associate Professor of Regional Studies. His researchfocuses on Post-Soviet countries, the Caucasus and the Turkish World.
Hamdi Fırat Büyük is currently a visiting research fellow at Universityof Sarajevo’s Faculty of Political Science. His main research interestsare the Balkans, Turkey-Balkan relations, and EU enlargement policies.In Turkey, Büyük worked in think-tanks and the media sector. Büyük is aregular contributor to various national and international media outlets, andoften conducts fieldwork in the Balkans. Büyük is currently pursuing hisPh.D. with his dissertation titled Balkan Muslims in AKP Period TurkishForeign Policyin International Relations at Ankara University Faculty of Political Sciences. Heobtained a B.A. in Business Administration and International Relations from Kadir Has University,and received a M.Sc. in International Relations from University of Essex with his thesis titledTurkey’s Soft Power in the Balkans.
Mustafa Şükrü Elekdağ, after graduating from İstanbul Yüksek İktisatve Ticaret Okulu, completed his masters and doctoral studies inEconomics at La Faculté de Droit et des Sciences EconomiquesL’université Paris-I-Panthéon-Sorbonne. Elekdağ joined the Turkish MFAin 1951. He served as ambassador in Tokyo, undersecretary of the TurkishMFA, and ambassador in Washington. He retired in 1989. Elekdağ taughtcourses at Bilkent University between 1990 and 2002. He was a memberof the parliament as a deputy of Istanbul at 22ndand 23rdlegislative terms. He has made numerouscontributions to various media organs.
İbrahim Fevzi Güven is a research assistant at Karabük UniversityInternational Relations Department. He graduated from InternationalRelations Department at Istanbul University in 2014. Currently, he ispursuing his master’s degree at Yalova University International RelationsDepartment. Güven’s research interests include Balkan studies, politicalhistory, and international relations theories.
Cengiz Haksöz has a B.A. degree in Political Science and InternationalRelations from Marmara University (2003) and M.S. degree inSociology from Middle East Technical University (2007). He is a PhDcandidate in Anthropology at University of Pittsburgh, and in Sociology atMiddle East Technical University. His main geographical areas of interestinclude the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Turkey, and North America. Histheoretical interests lie in the sphere of food, collective memory, landscapes,borderlands, identity, minorities, ethnicity, language, religion, nationalism and urban studies. Hisdissertation at University of Pittsburgh focuses on use of various landscapes in post-socialistperipheral cities in Bulgaria.
Merve Suna Özel Özcan is a research assistant at Kırıkkale UniversityDepartment of International Relations. Özel graduated fromDepartment of International Relations and Department of History at GaziUniversity. She received her master’s degree from Gazi UniversityDepartment of Political and Social Sciences. Özel is currently pursuingtwo doctoral degrees at Kırıkkale University Department of InternationalRelations and at Gazi University Department of Politics and Social Sciences.Her research focuses on Russian Federation, the Balkans, nationalism, identity, and empires.
Teoman Ertuğrul Tulun graduated from the Department of PoliticalScience at McGill University in 2003. He worked as a senior researchassistant at the European Union Communication Group (ABİG) in Ankarabetween 2003 and 2004, and as a research assistant at Bilkent UniversityInternational Relations Department between 2004 and 2006. He receivedhis master’s degree from Bilkent University International RelationsDepartment in 2009. Between 2010 and 2015, he worked as research andteaching assistant at Bilkent University Department of Political Science and Public Administration.Between 2012 and 2015, he taught courses at the same department. Since 2010, he has beencontinuing his doctoral studies at Bilkent University Department of Political Science and PublicAdministration. Since 2016, Tulun has been working as an analyst at the Center for EurasianStudies.
Abdullah Tunç is currently pursuing a Ph.D. at Georgia State UniversityPolitical Science Department. He completed his master degree atAnkara University Public Law Department by defending his dissertationtitled Intervention by Invitation in International Law. His academicinterests in international law include use of force, humanitarian law andcivil war. He has published numerous commentaries and analyses. Havingearned his undergraduate degree from Bilkent University Law Department,Tunç completed his law internship at Ankara Bar Association.