Blog No : 2014 / 4
32 dk okuma

Prof. Dr. Hikmet ÖZDEMİR[1]


In 1938, while giving an account of the propaganda techniques employed in the First World War, American political science expert Harold D. Laswell wrote that he feared the influence of propaganda on civil society.[2] But there is a special type amongst such propaganda techniques that is more frightening than what Laswell had mentioned, and it has highly destructive consequences over civil society. Curiously enough, this special propaganda type has not been made a subject of academic or popular study in international literature except by those who legitimize and praise Armenian revanchism.[3]


Vengeful assassinations targeting Turkish statesman and diplomats in various countries were carried out by Armenian murderers in two waves of bloody terror between 1918 and 1923, and fifty years later between 1973 and 1994. These vengeful assassinations have been the most vicious tools of the propaganda wars witnessed in modern history.


Both assassination waves in 20th century that are 50 years apart against Turkish targets were the most concrete form of propaganda regarding the relationship between “revanchism and diplomacy”. The purpose of using “revanchism” and “diplomacy” words together is to emphasize that these assassins were, in a way, acting as state agents. In all of their murders, assassins declared that they had taken revenge of the Events of 1915 and that they had committed their acts in order to draw the world’s attention to their holy (!) cause.


These revanchists who carried out the bloodiest series of murders in modern history against the sons and daughters of the Turkish Nation contributed every time to the reproduction of a realm of “Blind Faith” based on the Events of 1915.



What is this Realm of “Blind Faith”?


Nemesis, the creator of the Realm of Blind Faith, was known as the god of justice and revenge in Ancient Greece. Themis was the goddess of customs, traditions, and folkways. In later times, she was adopted as the goddess of aristocratic law.[4] Themis was the daughter of Ouranos and Gaia, and the first wife of Zeus.[5]


In her dictionary, Azra Erhat explains that “Nemesis, as a concept, symbolizes divine vengeance.[6]


In the modern Armenian literature, “Nemesis” revanchism is used in the place of “Nuremberg Trials”.


Judgment (or in terms of the assassinations carried out by Armenian murderers; a kind of “adjudication”) is being carried out through Armenian revanchism, which takes its roots from ancient Greece(!). Additionally, the silence of the West against this archaic understanding should also be assessed. But it is also wrong to think that “assassination is the specialization of the Armenian nation”.[7] Such a “cut corner” approach would first of all commit injustice towards the Armenian heroes who in the World War (and then in Turkish Independence War) made all manner of sacrifices along with Turks and gave their lives in the battlefield. Adhering to such an approach would also be a betrayal of the Armenian neighbors who entrusted their own children to their Muslin neighbors when setting out on that tragic journey which was imposed by the extraordinary war conditions in 1915.


The Turkish Nation, who created peace from the ten long years of war between 1912 and 1922 (Balkan War, The Great War and Turkish Independence War) with Ataturk’s leadership, is noble enough to know that no nation should be offended by such all-out accusations.[8]


The ones that are referred to here are only the armed militants and some politicians, and they have not only done great harm to their “long-time” friends the Turkish Nation, with which they had lived together a thousand years, but also to the Armenian society.


Returning to our subject, the Great War in 1918 ended in way that caused great pain for all sides!


A group, which also includes Armenian Dashnaks, have come together based on a historical (mythological) belief to take revenge for their cause and to make propaganda (=diplomacy) through such acts of revenge.


The decisions of the Congress of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnak), which convened in Yerevan between September 27 and October 31 in 1919, have served as the agenda of Armenian revanchism.[9]


These people think that they were subjected to a massacre in the year 1915. According to their blind faith, they will eliminate the people responsible for this massacre and thus avenge the deceased Armenians.


Shahan Natali (Hagop der Hagopian), a Turkish Armenian from United States, was tasked with the Nemesis Operations.[10]


In this respect the Young Turk leadership, who were living abroad without protection because of war and other reasons, were easy targets for these assassins.


In Europe after the war, in addition to the Armenian terrorist organizations, primarily the Greek intelligence service but also other countries too would have been pleased with the killing of the Young Turks leaders. This also made the job of Nemesis and Armenian terror easier.[11]


Armenian Dashnaks prepared a list of the people they found to be guilty, and killed most of these people in Turkey, the Caucasus and Europe.[12]


The “Black List” formed by the Armenian Dashnaks consists of approximately 200 people.[13]


An account of these “revenge lists” were given in the daily notes of Cavid Bey, Ex-Minister of Finance of Young Turks, in the following manner:


November 12, 1919, Wednesday"


“I had a long discussion with [Ex-Foreign Minister of the Ottoman Empire] Kapriyel Efendi. It seems that he has altered and amended his ideas. I think he has understood that the achievement of a Great Armenia is not possible. He supports an agreement with the Turks. He says that he is absolutely not pleased with Armenian parties, especially with the Dashnaks, and indicates that their rule would constitute a catastrophe.”

“He wanted me to give the names of the ones who -of course those who are not involved in the Armenian issue- I do not want to be transferred in to the list of criminals.”[14]



"December 4, 1919, Thursday"


“Today Kapriel was at my abode for some tea. He spoke of giving a portion of the land from the provinces of Erzurum, Van and Bitlis to the future Armenia, of dissuading Armenians from demanding more than such a portion of land with the help of the pressure applied by other states, of the need of good relations between Turks and Armenians in the future, and of a confederation that maybe formed in the upcoming times.”[15]



"December 20, 1919, Saturday"


“Today Kapriel again mentioned that, if a confederation was to be formed, that Armenians could be persuaded to participate in it. (…)”[16]



As can be gathered from the letters of the exiled Young Turk letters, there is also information about how the Turkish leaders killed by the Armenian revanchists were in premade list:


In the letter dated December 23, 1921, written by Ismail Canpulat to Cavid Bey after the assassination of Sait Halim Pasha in Rome, it is mentioned that:


“Official note that has been mentioned before does not confirm the Armenian point of view. This rumor was started by the son of the madame. If you want, you can ask Ziya when you write to him. But I do not believe it. Supposedly someone from the security general directorate has told him. Ismail Hakkı Pasha was apparently the fourth. Appearently Talât, Behbud Han and Sait Halim were at the top. (...)”[17]


In the letter dated December 31, 1921, written by Ismail Canpulat to Cavid Bey:


“(…) My opinion is that it was an incident caused by the Armenians to serve as a reminder of the Armenian issue just so as to coincide with the time when Foreign Ministers were to negotiate in Paris. (...)”


“I later asked Ziya Bey again about the list issue. As he quotes from the police, a list was allegedly found during the passing away of Talât Pasha, a list about which the Italian Government was also notified. Not that I learned it again here. I do not know to what extent this is true.”[18]


The letter dated April 22, 1922 sent to Cavid Bey from İsmail Canpulat was completely dedicated to the list issue:


“On thursday Jak and I went to the deputy chief of the police. He had the list brought. He said that he will investigate it and notify us. And I gave Jak your and Cahid’s names, and also the names of some friends that are in Europe. I advised Jak to learn them as well. Because I understood that deputy chief of the police does not want to show me the list, nor does he want to explain the seriousness of the list.”


“Last night I went to Ziya Bey’s abode. There was a crowd. I could not speak with Jak. It turns out that he did not want to tell me anyway because apparently my name was also included in the list. This was told to me by Ziya and Rıfkı. You and I –so both of us- are apparently included in the list that is in the hands of Italian police. In my opinion, these people must have been following the system of executing assassinations by first sending people to the necessary places, in other words the cities where we are present, to investigate our conditions and later summon the people that will do the actual work. In light of this; the ones who carried out the assassination in Berlin will get away from there. That is to say, the same people or others are going to be used in another location. Such a location can be Rome, Meran, Manton or Munich. Therefore, the ones that are going to stay in Europe should leave these positions in order to delay the shocking act. In any case, frequent change of location would make the act harder or even make it impossible. Otherwise any precaution apart from this would not avail in my opinion.”[19]


As for the İsmail Canpulat’s letter to Cavid Bey dating April 27, 1927, there is information about the existence of another twenty people in the Armenian list:


“The list that Jak saw, or rather lists are composed of three notes. He saw some names in the notes. In total it is a list of up to 18 or 20 people. It is evident that this list is incomplete. Deputy chief of the police has specifically asked for this to be kept confidential. There are people in the notes who have already been shot. There is Ismail Hakkı Pasha, there is also you. And there are other names which Jak cannot remember. The ones whose names I gave; Halil, Nisei and Rahmi are not in the list. (…)”[20]


Ismail Canpulat informs that “a new assassination attempt is expected” in his letter to Cavid Bey dated May 1, 1922:


“(…) Just about everybody is changing their locations. Hacı Adil Bey has left Munich, Nesimi and Halil Bey are about to leave soon, but not right away in these days. But a second assassination is to be expected after a period of calm. In here, I too survey everywhere at all the times. (…)”[21]


As shown in General Kazım Karabekir’s work named Istiklal Harbimiz, the names on this list are:


Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha, Ahmet Izzet Pasha, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Governor of Van Cevdet Bey, Governor of Ankara Atıf Bey, Kazım (Özalp), Dr. Bahattin Şakir Bey, Sait Halim Pasha, Topal Atıf Bey, Şeyh Sait Efendi of Hınıs, Kara Kemal Bey, Commander of Erzurum Şevki Bey, Commander of Maraş Halil Bey, Ebüzziyazade Velid Bey, Fehim Bey of Erzurum, Governor of Urfa Cevdet Bey, Erzurum Committee of Union and Progress Associate Bahattin, Cemal ve Edip Efendi Hodjas, Guardian of Medina Fahrettin Pasha, Governor of Sivas Muammer Bey, Mithat Şükrü Bleda, Halil Menteşe, Ankara Committee of Union and Progress Associate Necati Bey, Circassian Kör Kasım Bey, Commander of Adapazarı and İzmit İbrahim Bey, Chief of Police  of Ankara Bahattin Bey, Gendarme Commander of Sivas Mahir Bey, Ex Chiefs of Police Bedri Bey and Azmi Bey.[22]


According to another information gathered by Turkish sources; the Dashnak Congress that assembled in Zurich in 1920 reviewed the pursuit of the project of “Great Armenia” and “black list” that was prepared before in 1915. Names of Governor Dr. Reşit Bey who committed suicide and District Governor of Boğazlıyan Kemal Bey who was executed, and Ömer Naci Bey who died on the battlefield were removed from the list.[23]


The first wave of Armenian revanchism in the 20th century took place in this order:

The first murder that was carried out for propaganda and revenge by the Armenian blind faith was in the capital of the Ottoman Empire.


A murder committed in April of 1919 during the new period after the war was the first sign of Armenian revanchism.


An Armenian named Harutyan Mkrttşyan was murdered in April of 1919 by another Armenian (=Tehleryan) for revenge based on the claim that four years ago Mkrttşyan had given a notification list to the Istanbul Chief of Police Bedri during the arrests of April 24, 1915 in Istanbul.[24]


Having committed his first revenge murder in Istanbul, the Armenian assassin Tehleryan then murdered Ex-Prime Minister of Ottoman Empire Talat Pasha on 15 March 1921 as was planned by Shatan Natali, director of Nemesis Operations in Berlin, who had pointed out Talat Pasha as the “primary target”.[25]


In the year 1931, Atatürk told the following words to Talat Pasha’s wife:


“Atatürk said: ‘Hayriye Hanım, as you know Talat Pasha and I had no hostility towards each other. I never considered him guilty for our entry into the First War, we were obliged to join. During the Independence War, we benefitted greatly from the Pasha’s transfer of the minorities who would have probably stabbed us in the back.’ His response was: ‘Do not request the transfer of his funereal from me now, as we have an account to settle with Germany on this subject. Allow him to be buried now, when the time comes I will personally have it brought it back.’ But he did not live long enough to have this done. (…)”[26]


A typical characteristic of Armenian revanchism after war was that it perceived Turkish and Azerbaijani leadership as the “same enemy” and as such targeted both societies’ leadership in their revenge murders.


After the Istanbul murder in April of 1919, Ex-Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Republic Fetih Ali Han Hoylu was killed by Yervand Unciyan in Tbilisi in the middle of street on June 7, 1920. Georgian authorities stated that the Armenian murderer escaped from the borders.[27]


Afterwards, on July 18, 1921 in Istanbul, Ex-Minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan Behud Han Cevanşir was killed by Misak Torlakyan. Behbud Han was born in 1877 and was educated as a petroleum engineer in Germany. He then came back his country and took part in the nationalist movements, and became the minister of internal affairs of the Republic of Independent Azerbaijan. When his country was invaded by the Russian Red Army, he and 12 of his friends were condemned to death. He was later pardoned, and was appointed to the trade agency of the Transcaucasia Soviet in Istanbul. During his duty, he was killed by Misak Torlakyan on July 18, 1921 in front of the Pera Palas in Beyoğlu.[28]


Misak Torlakyan was arrested by the French invasion forces in Istanbul, after which he was tried by the British and acquitted in the November of 1921.[29]


On December 6, 1921, an ex-prime minister of Ottoman Empire again became a target of Armenian revanchism. After the murder of Talat Pasha in Berlin nine months earlier, Ex-Prime Minister Sait Halim Pasha was shot and murdered by Arşavir Şirakyan in Rome. [30]


When Said Halim Pasha was held hostage by the British government in Malta, a letter delivered to him sentenced him to death. The Dashnak Committee with its base in the USA had sentenced him to death.[31]


After that, according to an agreement that was reached between the Ankara government and Britain, a group of Turkish hostages were released from Malta. Most of them came back to Turkey, but Sait Halim Pasha’s was not allowed to return. The ex-prime minister was placed in a hotel in Rome. He did not have a guard, nor did he carry a weapon. One month later, on December 8, 1921, Turkish Diplomatic Representative Ahmet Ferit (Tek) sent this telegram to Ankara from Paris:


“From the daily newspapers – The latest telegram received from Rome (December 7) reports that Ex-Grand Vizier Sait Halim was murdered by an unidentified assailant.’[32]


The murderer who killed Sait Halim Pasha came back to Istanbul without getting caught. According to Armenian resources, this assassination was headed by Grigor Mercanov. [33]


The remains of Sait Halim Pasha was brought back to Istanbul and buried next of his father Halim Pasha in the Sultan Mahmut Mausoleum on January 20, 1922. [34]


The murderer Arşavir Şırakyan, who had killed Ex-Prime Minister (Grand Vizier) Sait Halim Pasha, was tasked one more time for the Nemesis Operation in Berlin.[35]


In Berlin on April 17, 1922, two former directors of the Committee of Union and Progress, Dr. Bahaddin Şakir and Cemal Azmi were killed by Arşavir Şirakyan and Aram Yerkanyan. This act was planned by Şatan Hatali, Hıraç Papazyan and Yezidan Arşak Muşeryan.[36]


According to an Armenian source from 1990, Cemal Azmi was murdered by Arşavir Şirakyan and while Dr. Bahattin Şakir was murdered by Aram Yergenyan.[37]


According to another resource, the murderer who killed Cemal Azmi had the code name of ‘T’ and it was Aram Yergenyan who helped him. [38]


On July 22, 1922, another revanchist assassination was carried in Tbilisi.


Ex-Minister of Maritime and Commander of the Fourth Army and General Governor of Suriye Cemal Pasha was shot and murdered by Petros Ter-Porosyan, Artaşes Gevorkyan and Stefan Sarıkyan. [39]


In this terrorist attack, Ex-Minister of Maritime Cemal Pasha’s assistants Şevket Bey and Süreyya Bey were also martyred alongside Cemal Pasha.[40]


The remains of Cemal Pasha and his assistants were brought to the country at the request of Grand National Assembly of Turkey and were buried in Erzurum with a military ceremony. [41]


According to an account given by İsmet İnönü: “When Cemal Pasha was killed in Tbilisi, Atatürk made it an issue for a long period of time.”[42]


… And on the day of August 4 in 1922, in East Bukhara, Ex-Minister of War of the Ottoman Empire and the Deputy Commander in Chief of the Ottoman Armies Enver Pasha was killed by Hakup Melkumyan, an Armenian from Nagorno-Karabakh, during the Russian Red Army’s operation in Tajikistan.[43]


It is known that the Armenian Dashnaks made an effort to assassinate İsmet Pasha when he was in Lausanne on May of 1923 to conduct international peace negotiations.[44]


Moreover, Çankaya Palace’s archive documents clearly support the existence of the same groups’ plans and attempts to assassinate Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the President of Republic of Turkey.[45]


Fifty years after a series of Armenian revanchist murders against the Azerbaijani and Turkish leaders and government officers, the second wave of bloody terrorist attacks were carried out in the 1970s and 1980s.


The second wave of Armenian revanchism in 20th century was in the form of carrying out attacks against diplomatic and trade representatives of the Republic of Turkey.


These terrorist attacks were in North America, Asia, Australia and mostly Western Europe.


The distribution of terrorist attacks based on countries are as follows:


France (37), Switzerland (25), Italy (20), Lebanon (17), USA (15), Turkey (14), Spain (11), Iran (10), Belgium (5), England (5), Canada (5), Denmark (4), Greece (4), West Germany (4), Austria (3), Holland (2), Portuguese (2), Australia (1), Iraq (1), USSR (1), Bulgaria (1) and Yugoslavia (1).


The distribution of attacks according to years are as follows:


In 1979, 29;

In 1980, 38;

In 1981, 47;

In 1982, 26;

In 1983, 13;

In 1984, 6.[46]


The names of the Turkish diplomats, officers and their relatives in the foreign representation agencies of the Republic of Turkey who were martyred in Armenian revanchist attacks between 1973 and 1994 are as follows:[47]


Mehmet Baydar, Consul General of Los Angeles; Martyr, January 27, 1973.

Bahadır Demir, Vice Consul General of Los Angeles; Martyr, January 27, 1973.

Daniş Tunalıgil, Vienna Ambassador of Turkey; Martyr, October 22, 1975.

İsmail Erez, Paris Ambassador of Turkey; Martyr, October 22, 1975.

Talip Yener, Driver of Paris Embassy; Martyr, October 24, 1975.

Oktay Cirit, Secretary of Beirut Embassy; Martyr, February 16, 1976.

Taha Carım, Vatican ambassador of Turkey, Martyr, June 9, 1977.

Necla Kuneralp, Wife of Madrid Ambassador; Martyr, June 2, 1978.

Beşir Balcıoğlu, Retired Madrid Ambassador of Turkey; Martyr, June 2, 1978.

Ahmet Benler, Son of The Hague Ambassador; Martyr, October 12, 1979.

Yılmaz Çolpan, Tourism Counselor of Paris Embassy; Martyr, December 22, 1979.

Galip Özmen, Administrative Attache of Atina Embassy, Martyr, July 31, 1980.

Neslihan Özmen, Daughter of Athens Administrative Attaché of Turkey; Martyr, July 31, 1980.

Şarık Arıyak, Consul General of Sydney Embassy; Martyr, December 17, 1980.

Engin Sever, Security Guard of Sydney Embassy; Martyr, December 17, 1980.

Reşat Moralı, Labor Counselor of Paris Embassy; Martyr, March 4, 1981.

Tecelli Arı, Religious Official of Paris Embassy; Martyr, March 4, 1981.

M. Savaş Yergüz, Secretary in Geneva Consulate General; Martyr, Jun 9, 1981.

Cemal Özen, Security Guard in Paris Embassy; Martyr, September 24, 1981.

Krmal Arıkan, General Consul of Los Angeles; Martyr, January 28, 1982.

Orhan Gündüz, Agent Grand Consular of Boston; Martyr, May 4, 1982.

Erkut Akbay, Administrative Attaché of Lisbon Embassy; Martyr, June 7, 1982.

Nadide Akbay, Secretary in Lisbon Embassy; Martyr, June 7, 1982.

Atilla Altıkat, Military Attaché of Ottawa Embassy; Martyr, August 27, 1982.

Bora Süelkan, Administrative Attaché of Burgas Consulate General; Martyr, September 9, 1982.

Galip Balkar, Belgrade Ambassador of Turkey; Martyr, March 9, 1983.

Dursun Aksoy, Administrative Attaché of Brussels; Martyr, July 14, 1983.

Cahide Mıhçıoğlu, Wife of Lisbon Charge de’Affaires; Martyr, July 27, 1983.

İsmail Pamukçu, Military Attaché of Tehran Embassy of Turkey, Martyr, March 27, 1984.

Işık Yöner, Wife of Tehran Embassy Secretary; Martyr, April 28, 1984.

Erdoğan Özen, Vice Counselor of Labor of Vienna; Martyr, June 20, 1984.

Evner Ergun, Director of UN Turkish Office; Martyr, May 19, 1984.

Çetin Görgü, Assistant of Media Attaché of Athens; Martyr, October 7, 1991.

Çağlar Yücel, Administrative Attaché of Baghdad; Martyr, December 11, 1993.

Haluk Sipahioğlu, Second Counselor of Athens Embassy; Martyr, July 4, 1994.[48]


Between January 27, 1973 and July 4, 1994, there were 27 terrorist attacks against Turkey’s representatives and relatives in 17 countries. To sum up, 34 Turkish diplomats and 17 Turkish civilians were killed in these attacks. [49]


On January 27, 1973, in Los Angeles, Turkish Consul General Mehmet Baydar and Vice Consul General Bahadır Demir were killed by a murderer named Mıgırdıç Yanıkyan.[50]


In October 22, 1975, Vienna Embassy was invaded by terrorists and Ambassador Danış Tunagil was shot in his office. Two days later (October 24), Paris Ambassador İsmail Erez and his driver Talip Yener were killed in their official car near the embassy.[51]


Between 1976 and 1979, diplomats and their families in Turkey’s foreign representations in Beirut, Rome, Madrid. Geneva, The Hague and Paris encountered a series of bloody terrorist attacks. Vatican Ambrassador Taha Carım, Necla Kuneralp who was Madrid Ambrassador Zeki Kuneralp’s wife and Ahmet Benler who was Lahey Amrassador Özdemir Benler’s son were shot in this period. [52]


In the 1980s, revanchist attacks increased and bloody terrorist attacks were carried against foreign representatives and their families in Marseille, Athens, Lyon, Paris, Sydney, Copenhagen, Geneva,  Los Angeles, Ottawa, Boston, Lisbon, Burgas, Belgrade, Brussels, Tehran and Vienne. During this period, Belgrade Ambrassador Galip Balkar, Sydney Consul General Kemal Arıkan, Military Attaché of Ottawa Embassy Air Staff Colonel Atilla Altıkat, Tourism Counselor of Paris Embassy Yılmaz Çolpan, Labor Counselor of Paris Embassy Reşay Moralı, and Officer Tecelli Arı were amongst those who were viciously murdered.[53]


Just as Ankara failed to make a valid analysis of the international effects of Armenian revanchism in the first instance, which had started with the murder of Ex-Prime Minister Talat Pasha in Berlin in 1921 and which was reflected in the legal case against the murderer, it again failed to make a valid analysis of the period that began in 1973 with murder of the Turkish diplomats.


On January 31, 1975, Abdi İpekçi, editorial writer of Milliyet, pointed out Armenian revanchism as the true danger by remarking that, “Turkish press has silenced itself. It didn’t mention about Armenian schemes in the USA. A scenario is being played out for many years now. Despite this, hate and revenge-filled publishing are being continued.”[54]


According to Galip Alşıtepe’s and Erdem Çanak’s evaluation titled “Turkish Public Opinion in the Face of the First Five Murders”, “despite this, no one realized that this was the first phase of a series of terrorist attacks that could develop to the detriment of Turkey.”


“But Yanıkyan, who was tried and sentenced to ten years in a jail after the murder, had sent a writing to newspapers the previous day of the murder and had indicated, ‘Armenians everywhere should follow this tactic, this new type of war tactic.  Maybe this act can be more effective at waking up most of people’s conscience’.”[55]


On October 22, 1975, after Turkey’s Vienna Ambassador Danış Tunalıgil’s was murdered, Hürriyet newspaper claimed that the murderers were three Greeks Cypriots whose names were Dennis Çakoras, Teodor Lukidis and Ponarof Georgias, while Milliyet Newspaper wrote that Greek Terrorist Group EOKA-B had taken credit for the murder. But “no one grasped the reality of the situation – that what was being faced was Armenian terrorism.”[56]


The findings of another study, which analyzed the way Armenian revanchist terrorist acts were depicted as news in the Hürriyet and Milliyet newspapers, are highly thought-provoking.


According to study, Turkish press did not believe it when the ASALA terrorist group took credit for first murder of the second wave of assassinations in 1973, and instead claimed that the murder was committed by the Greek Cypriot revanchist terror organization EOKA-B. The Turkish press wrote that the name ASALA was introduced as tactical move by the Greek Cypriots. [57]


The following information contained in an intelligence note sent to Prime Minister Süleyman Demirel in 1975 demonstrates the extent of the failure of the Turkish intelligence and foreign affairs services:


“(…) The serial numbers of the guns that were captured in Greek Cypriot camps and of the guns used in the assassination of our Vienna Ambassador are very similar. (…)”


“Youth coming from various places and organizations around the world are being trained in the international terror organization’s secret camps and are brought up to create chaos. This is a new organization, and its convictions and to whom it serves have yet to be confirmed.”


“Agents gathering intelligence in Beirut asserted that Armenian involvement in the assassination of our ambassador is unlikely. It has been confirmed that İsmail Erez was liked by Armenians during his stay in Beirut and that Armenians’ religious leaders showed great respect to Erez. “[58]


Besides this being a grave failure for a state, it serves as the proof that the Turkish state and public had forgotten about the bloody assassinations of Ottoman administrators and civilians and about the revanchist tradition of the Armenian Dashnak and Hunchakian organizations.


Despite all the efforts of Republic of Turkey; “human rights defenders”, the world public, international organizations and allied governments (particularly the USA and France) simply stood by and watched as these murderers and the dark forces hiding behind carried out their acts by spreading propaganda, and by shedding the blood of and taking revenge from Turkish sons and daughters who were born long years after the Events of 1915.


And Turkey did not impose any sanctions on its allies and these so-called human rights defenders.


FINAL WORD/ Talât, Cemal, Enver and their comrades who were murdered for the sake of a “blind faith” by Armenian assassins and also our diplomats who were murdered in the 1980’s during their missions abroad are martyrs who have been entrusted to the conscience of the Turkish Nation.


May God rest their souls. 


[1] Political Science Professor, Retired Presidential Key Advisor.

[2] Harold D. Lasswell, “Foreword”, in G. G. Bruntz (ed), Allied Propaganda and the Collapse of the German Empire in 1918, (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1938), from pp. V-VII: Vamık D. Volkan, “Körü Körüne İnanç”, (Translated by Özgür Karaçam), (Istanbul, Okuyanus, 2005), p. 412.

[3] As an important reference, please see: Jacques Derogy, Resistance & Revenge, The Armenian Assassinasion of the Turkish Leaders Responsible for the 1915 Massacres and Deportations, (New Brunswick and London, Transaction Publishers, 1990).

[4] Alâeddin Şenel, Eski Yunanda Eşitlik ve Eşitsizlik Üstüne, (Ankara, AÜSBF Y., 1970), p. 69, ref. 153.

[5] Rosa Agizza, Antik Yunan’da Mitoloji Masallar ve Söylenceler, (Trans. Z. Zühre İlkgelen), (Istanbul, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Y., 2001), p. 369.

[6] Azra Erhat, Mitoloji Sözlüğü, (İstanbul, Remzi K., 1972), p. 274.

[7] Rıza Nur, Hayat ve Hatıratım, 3. Vol, (Istanbul, Altındağ Y., 1968), p. 1066.

[8] Hikmet Özdemir, 1915 Tartışılırken Gözden Kaçırılanlar, (Ankara, Genelkurmay Y., 2007).

[9] “Operation Nemesis” from Wikipedia, the Free Encylopedia.

[10] Michael M. Gunter, Pursuing The Just Cause Of Their People, A Study Of Contemporary Terrorism, (New York, Grenwood Press, 1986), p. 29.

[11] Sedat Laçiner, Türkler ve Ermeniler, (Ankara, USAK Y., 2005), p. 311.

[12] Ara Caprielian, The Armenian Revolutionary Federation: The Politics of a Party in Exile, (A Desertation of Doctorate at New York University, 1975), p. 306, ref. 11.

[13] “Operation Nemesis” from Wikipedia, the Free Encylopedia.

[14] Maliye Nazırı Cavid Bey Felaket Günleri, Mütareke Devrinin Feci Tarihi, (Pub. Osman Selim Kocahanoğlu), (Istanbul, Temel Y., 2000), p. 259.

[15] Maliye Nazırı Cavid Bey Felaket Günleri, Mütareke Devrinin Feci Tarihi, p. 267.

[16] Maliye Nazırı Cavid Bey Felaket Günleri, Mütareke Devrinin Feci Tarihi, p. 275.

[17] Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın, İttihatçı Liderlerin Gizli Mektupları, (Prep. Osman Selim Kocahanoğlu), (Istanbul, Temel Y., 2002), p. 446.

[18] Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın, İttihatçı Liderlerin Gizli Mektupları, p. 447.

[19] Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın, İttihatçı Liderlerin Gizli Mektupları, p. 451.

[20] Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın, İttihatçı Liderlerin Gizli Mektupları, p. 454.

[21] Hüseyin Cahit Yalçın, İttihatçı Liderlerin Gizli Mektupları, p. 456.

[22] Kazım Karabekir, İstiklal Harbimiz, (İstanbul, Türkiye Y., 1960), pp. 974-975.

[23] Tahsin Uzer, “Meşrutiyet’in İlk Şehitleri”, Yakın Tarihimiz, Vol. 3, Issue 36, (1 Kasım 1962), p. 313 vd.

[24] Tessa Hofmann, Talat Paşa Davası, Bilinmeyen Belgeler/Yorumlar,  (Çev. Doğan Akhanlı),  (İstanbul, Belge Y., 2003), p. 17.

[25] The chapter titled “İsterlerse Beni Assınlar!” from Hikmet Özdemir, Üç Jön Türk’ün Ölümü, (Istanbul, Remzi K., 2007).

[26] Murat Bardakçı, "Hayriye Talat: Kocam Talat Paşa", Milliyet, November 26, 1982.

[27] Cemal Kutay, Talat Paşa'nın Gurbet Hatıraları III, (İstanbul, Kültür Y., 1983), p. 1218.

[28] Veysel Usta, “Ağaoğlu ahmed Beyin Ermeni Propogandalarının Mahiyeti ÜZerine Bir Konferansı” Türk Dünyası Araştırmaları, 131, (April 2001), p.76-77, ref. 7.

[29] Tessa Hofmann, Talat Paşa Davası, Bilinmeyen Belgeler/Yorumlar, p.16 and “Operation Nemesis” from Wikipedia, the Free Encylopedia.

[30] Arshavir Shirakian, The Legacy: Memoirs of An Armenian Patriot, (Boston: Hairenik Press, 1976), p. 135-136 and Tessa Hofmann, Talat Paşa DAvası, Bilinmeyen Belgeler/Yorumlar, p. 16

[31] Bilal N. Şimşir, Şehit Diplomatlarımız, Cilt I, (Ankara, Bilgi K, 2000) p. 52.

[32] Bilal N. Şimşir, Şehit Diplomatlarımız, Cilt I, pp. 52-53.

[33] “Operation Nemesis” from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.

[34] Bilal N. Şimşir, Şehit Diplomatlarımız, Cilt I, p. 54.

[35] Arşavir Shirakian, The Legacy: Memoirs of An Armenian Patriot, (Boston: Hairenik Pres, 1976), pp. 103-117 and 169-181.

[36] Tessa Hofmann, Talat Paşa Davası, Bilinmeyen Belgeler/Yorumlar, p. 16.

[37] Vartkes Yeghiayan, The Armenian Genocide and The Trials of the Young Turks, (California, La Verne, American Armenian International College Press, 1990), p.183.

[38] “Operation Nemesis” form Wikipedia, the Free Encylopedia.

[39] Ara Caprielian The Armenian Revolutionary Federation: the Politics of a Party in Exile, p.295, ref.4; Tessa Hofmann, Talat Paşa Davası Bilinmeyen Belgeler /Yorumlar, p. 17.

[40] Hikmet Özdemir, Üç Jön Türk’ün Ölümü, “İntikamcılar  ve Ardındakiler” chapter

[41] Cemal Paşa, Hatıralar, (İstanbul, Çağdaş Y., 1977), p. 8

[42] İsmet İnönü'nün Hatıraları, Genç Subaylık Yıllarım 1884–1918, (Haz. Sabahattin Selek), (İstanbul, Burçak Y., 1969), p. 226.

[43] Tessa Hofmann, Talat Paşa Davası, Bilinmeyen Belgeler/Yorumlar, p. 26, ref. 5.

[44] Cemal Kutay, Lozan’da İsmet Paşa’yı Kim Öldürecekti? (İstanbul, Ercan M., 1956), p. 27 etc.

[45] Prof. Azmi Süsle published an article about this subject.

[46] Michael M. Gunter, Pursuing The Just Cause Of Their People, A Study Of Contemporary Terrorism, p. 67-68.

[47] Our martyr’s names are taken from Retired Ambrassador Bilal N. Şimşir’s book that “Şehit Diplomatlarımız Cilt I, (Ankara, Bilgi K., 2000)

[48] This assassination was carried out by the Greece-based “17 October Organization”.

[49] Yücel Atilla Şehirli, “Türk Diplomatlarına Yönelen Ermeni Terör Saldırılarının (1973-1994) Hürriyet ve Milliyet Gazetelerinde Veriliş Şekli”, Ermeni Araştırmaları 2. Türkiye Kongresi Bildirileri II. Cilt, (Ankara, ASAM Ermeni Araştırmaları Enstitüsü Y., 2007), pp. 1231-1266.

[50] Bilal N. Şimşir, “Ermeni Terörü ve Şehit Türk Diplomatları Üzerine Bazı Tespitler ve Öneriler”, Ermeni Araştırmaları II. Cilt, p.  399.

[51] Bilal N. Şimşir, “Ermeni Terörü ve Şehit Türk Diplomatları Üzerine Bazı Tespitler ve Öneriler”, Ermeni Araştırmaları II. Cilt, p.  399.

[52] Bilal N. Şimşir, “Ermeni Terörü ve Şehit Türk Diplomatları Üzerine Bazı Tespitler ve Öneriler”, Ermeni Araştırmaları II. Cilt, p.  399.

[53] Bilal N. Şimşir, “Ermeni Terörü ve Şehit Türk Diplomatları Üzerine Bazı Tespitler ve Öneriler”, Ermeni Araştırmaları II. Cilt, p.  399.

[54] Galip Alçıtepe ve Erdem Çanak, “İlk Beş Cinayet Karşısında Türk Kamuoyu”, Ermeni Araştırmaları II. Cilt, p.  421.

[55] Galip Alçıtepe ve Erdem Çanak, “İlk Beş Cinayet Karşısında Türk Kamuoyu”, Ermeni Araştırmaları II. Cilt, p.  421.

[56] Galip Alçıtepe ve Erdem Çanak, “İlk Beş Cinayet Karşısında Türk Kamuoyu”, Ermeni Araştırmaları II. Cilt, p.  422.

[57] Yücel Atilla Şehirli, “Türk Diplomatlarına Yönelen Ermeni Terör Saldırılarının (1973-1994) Hürriyet ve Milliyet Gazetelerinde Veriliş Şekli”, Ermeni Araştırmaları 2. Türkiye Kongresi Bildirileri II. Cilt, p. 1264.

[58] Yücel Atilla Şehirli, “Türk Diplomatlarına Yönelen Ermeni Terör Saldırılarının (1973-1994) Hürriyet ve Milliyet Gazetelerinde Veriliş Şekli”, Ermeni Araştırmaları 2. Türkiye Kongresi Bildirileri II. Cilt, p. 1234.


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